“Therefore, it would seem reasonable to believe that this results in reduced metabolic efﬁciency,” lead researcher Dr Sebastien Duc notes, “but it’s not quite that simple.”
This is because the efﬁciency level is affected by the pedalling intensity. Experiments with cyclists working at a low intensity (50-60% of VO2 max) show a marked difference between the efﬁciency levels of seated and standing positions with standing causing an increase in oxygen consumption double that of sitting. But at higher intensities the efﬁciency difference simply disappears.
“The hypothesis that standing posture is less economic than seated is only valid when intensity is lower than 75% of VO2 max,” says Duc.
So there you have it — the two branches of investigation largely agree.